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BRIEF HISTORY OF MYANMAR

 
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BRIEF HISTORY OF MYANMAR

BRIEF HISTORY OF MYANMARArchaeological findings reveal that parts of Myanmar were inhabited some 5,000 years ago.B.C 500 The Mons (မြန္), one of the present‑day national races of Myanmar founded kingdoms in Lower Myanmar.B.C. 100 The first Tibeto‑Burman group, the Pyus (ၿပဴ)settled into Myanmar and established kingdoms and walled cities.A.D. 500 Archaeological and epigraphic finds indicate that Buddhism was well established in lower Myanmar by the 5th century
 A.D.
832 Pyu kingdoms were conquered by the State of Nanchao, and the Pyus, merged with the Mons and( the second group of Tibeto‑Burman, the Bamars. (Burmese)849 Founding of Bagan as a walled city with twelve gates and a moat by King Pyinbya.1044 King Anawratha (1044 ‑ 1077),(အေနာ္ရထာမင္း) the 42nd king of Bagan Dynasty(႔ပုဂံေခတ္) according to the list in ancient Myanmar chronicles, acceded to the throne of Bagan and unified Myanmar into a first distinct political entity in the history of Myanmar, which is usually referred to as "the first Myanm႔႔ar Empire". Bagan was its capital. Anawratha introduced Theravada Buddhism (ေထရ၀ါဒဗုဒ)into the whole of Myanmar, and the Golden Era of Pagoda building began. The empire flourished for 250 years.
1084
  KingKyansittha(AD 1084 -1112),(က်န္စစ္သားမင္းႀကီး) the 2nd king of fame in the Bagan Dynasty, consolidated the Bagan Kingdom founded by his father King Anawrahta. He also put Theravada Buddhism on a strong, firm foothold.          
 
1113   King Alaung Sithu (AD 1113 - 1160)(အေလာင္းစည္သူမင္းၾကီး)The grandson of King Kyansittha,  became the King of Bagan at the age of 23 and his reign lasted for 47 years. During his reign as the king of Bagan, he built many elegant and prominent  temples, including Thabyinnyu and Shwegu-gyi.           
 
1287 The first Myanmar Empire collapsed with the invasion of the Mongols led by Kublai Khan. The country was separated into smaller kingdoms.1486-1530King Minkyino(မင္းက်ီးညိဳ) ascends the throne of the Burmese town of Taungoo in 1486.
After King Minkyino's death in 1530 his 16-year-old son Tabin-shweti becomes Taungoo's new King. Tabin-shweti follows an aggressive policy aiming to resurrect the Burmese realm within the borders of the former Bagan empire.
 
1531-1539Tabin-shweti 's(တပင္ေရြထီး) troops conquer the Mon port town Bassein and in 1539 the most important Mon town of that time, Bago. Further conquest campaigns into the northern Ayeyarwaddy valley ensure Tabin-shwet 's reign over an area, which roughly represents today's Myanmar. 1541 Myanmar was reunited by King Tabin-shweti (1531 ‑ 1551) and King Bayinnaung (1551 ‑ 1581) of Taungoo Dynasty and extended control over the whole Chao Phraya valley of present-day Thailand.1564 Bayint Naung (according to Siamese sources: Bhueng Noreng) lays siege to the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya, until it surrenders to the conditions of the Burmese.
The Siamese
Princess Suphankalaya and Prince Naresuan, were   abducted to Myanmar, as well as thousands of people and a number of highly valued white elephants.
1569 Bayint Naung(ဘုရင့္ေနာင္) was forced to invade Siam again, leading an army of 200,000 men. After a siege of seven months Ayuthaya was taken by force. Other states on Myanmar‑Chinese border and Manipur, now part of India, paid tribute to Myanmar.
Bago was its capital. However, after King Bayint Naung's death, the Empire fell apart eventually.
1607 Re‑unification of Myanmar by King Anauk‑hpet‑Lun (1606 ‑ 1628).(အေနာက္ဘက္လြန္မင္းတရားၾကီး)1635King Thalun (1628 ‑ 1648)(သာလြန္မင္းတရားၾကီး) moved the capital from Bago to( Innwa (Ava), (အင္း၀)near present‑day Mandalay.
The realm of the Burmans continues to lose in influence. At the same time the realm of the Mon, whose capital is still at Bago, grows in strength.
 
1650 Central power of the Empire weakened during the reign of King Pindale (1648 ‑1661) and deteriorated eventually.
The Mon conquer Innwa (Ava ) in 1752 and make it temporarily their own capital.
 
1752King Alaungpaya (1752 ‑ 1760)(အေလာင္းမင္းတရား) of Konbaung Dynasty once again reunited the whole country and established the third Myanmar Empire. Shewbo, north of present‑day Mandalay, was its capital. 1765 Re‑establishment of Innwa (Ava) as Myanmar's capital by King Sinbyushin (1763‑1776). Burmese forces of King Sinbyushin  invaded Siam in 1765 and fought a fierce battle with the Thais for two years before gaining control of the capital, Ayuthaya. During the process Ayuthaya was largely destroyed.1783 Capital moved to Amarapura,(အမရပူရ) near present‑day Mandalay, by King Bodawpaya (1782 ‑ 1819).1823 Capital moved back to Innwa (Ava) by King Bagyidaw (1819 ‑ 1838)1824 The First Anglo‑Myanmar war (1824 ‑ 1826) broke out and the British annexed Rakhine and Tanintharyi regions in Lower Myanmar.1838 Capital moved to Amarapura by King Tharyarwaddy (1838 ‑ 1846)1852 The second Anglo‑Myanmar war broke out and the British took control of Lower Myanmar.
1857
King Mindon (1853 ‑ 1878)(မင္းတုန္းမင္းၾကီး) founded city of Mandalay and two years later it was officially inaugurated as capital of Myanmar. King Mindon and his brother Prince Kanaung sought to modernize the country. Young men were sent to European countries to study. Several factories were build. Emissaries were sent abroad to establish good relations.1885 Despite King Mindon's efforts to save the country from the colonialists., Myanmar was once again waged a war of aggression by the British during the reign of his son King Thibaw (1878 ‑ 1885).
King Thibaw (သီေပါမင္း)was exiled to India after the war, so marking the end of the Myanmar monarchy and Myanmar's independence as a sovereign state. Local resistance, however, was fierce and it was not until 1890 that all of Myanmar was brought under British control.
1948 On 4 January 1948, Myanmar regained its independence after sacrificing thousands of lives during the struggle against foreign rule.       Click here for the time-line beyond 1948 to the present day  

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